The process of the independence of Ecuador was not an isolated occurrence of a strictly internal nature.
Independence Square in Quito
It happened at the time of the so called bourgeois revolutions, whose maximum expressions were the Independence of the United States of America (1776) and mainly the French Revolution (1789).
Both of them resulting from the context of the industrial revolution, which placed the political power in the hands of the bourgeois, as the new dominant class of the capitalist system.
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However, in Latin America the revolutions for independence were not bourgeois but of the Latin Criollos (South Americans with Spanish parents), whose education was undoubtedly influenced by the illustrated revolutionary beliefs of the European bourgeois.
The independence of Ecuador fell within the independence process of all the Spanish Colonies of the American continent, which occurred as a consequence of the reforms introduced by the Bourbons, the perspectives of free trade and, most of all, the invasion of Napoleon to Spain (1808).
On August 10, 1809, a group of "criollos" of the Quito City aristocracy, and philosophically identified with Catholic Illustration, decided that the moment had come to take power in their own hands, before Lima or Bogota tried to impose their own interests.
They deposed the authorities of the Royal Audience of Quito and formed a Board of Government of Quito, destined to govern in the name of the ousted King of Spain, Ferdinand VII.
But this early movement in Quito for the independence of Ecuador was suppressed, and the leaders were persecuted and incarcerated.
On August 2 of the following year, an attempt to free them failed, provoking a horrendous massacre of the patriots.
Thus, Quito lost a very valuable nucleus of intellectuals, who would have been of great support in the organization of the new country.
Precisely because of this tragic end, the Revolution of Quito awakened the revolutionary spirit.
But other attempts did not succeed, because once the monarchy was restored in Spain, they fiercely repressed the colonies and controlled any subversive attempt in the Royal Audience of Quito.
Simon Bolivar sent his general Antonio Jose de Sucre, leading 700 men, to assist in the movements of independence of Ecuador.
Sucre took control of the campaign and on 24 May, 1822 defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Pichincha and the Department of Quito was integrated to the Gran Colombia.
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So the official Ecuador Independence Day is on 24 May 1822. We celebrate this date every year with great parades especially in the city of Quito. But the unification efforts of Bolivar (Ecuador, Colombia, Peru) failed, and Quito separated from the Gran Colombia on May 13, 1830.
General Juan Jose Flores assumed the civil and military command and convoked the first Ecuadorian Congress that met in the City of Riobamba on August 1830.
This first congress wrote the Constitution, which named the country Ecuador and declared Quito as its capital city.
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